San Marino, or literally The Serene Republic of San Marino, is a dwarf state surrounded on all sides by Italian territory. The area of the country is only 60.57 km². But despite its diminutive size, the republic has managed to maintain its independence for many centuries.
This is what the modern flag of San Marino looks like:
History of the flag
The flag of San Marino was first mentioned in 1465. It is known that on September 4 of that year a Florentine, the owner of the manufactory, received an order to produce a banner.
It was a cloth consisting of three horizontal stripes. The top was orange, the middle was white, and the bottom was purple. The central stripe had the ancient emblem of San Marino: three towers, towering on three tops. At the bottom is the inscription in Latin “Libertas”, which translates as “Freedom”. The motto has a deep meaning. A small state surrounded by strong powers has managed over the centuries to maintain its independence.
The tricolor flag with the emblem and the inscription existed until 1797, when it was replaced by a new state symbol. It was a cloth consisting of two equal horizontal stripes – white and blue. The colors were taken from the State Emblem, adopted in the same year. Presumably they were inspired by the French bourgeois revolution. At present, the bicolor is the civilian flag.
The official date of adoption of the modern state flag of San Marino is April 6, 1862.
At the time of its adoption it was a rectangle, divided horizontally into two stripes – the upper white, the lower – dark blue. In the center was the coat of arms of the state.
In 2011, minor changes were made to the design. The blue has become lighter, and the laurel and oak branches framing the coat of arms are less sprawling. Changes were made to the images of peaks, towers, the crown and the scroll with the inscription.
A rectangle divided horizontally into two equal strips – a white top and a blue bottom.
The ratio of width to length is 3:4.
In the center of the cloth is the national emblem. It is a shield with three mountain peaks painted in green, against a blue sky. Each peak is crowned by a white tower, decorated with a heraldic plume of white ostrich feathers.
The shield is framed by a wreath of laurel branches on the left side and oak branches on the right.
A golden yellow crown crown crowns the coat of arms.
At the bottom, at the base of the coat of arms, is a white ribbon with a black inscription “Libertas”.
All colors of the flag are officially regulated.
According to the Pantone Coated classification, they correspond:
- white is pure white;
- blue on the flag corresponds to 2915 C;
- blue on the shield – 291 C;
- blue in the shade – 7698 C;
- green in the light – 576 C;
- green on the leaves – 7742 C;
- green in the shade – 350 C;
- yellow – 7406 C;
- golden yellow – 124 C;
- brown – 7559 C;
- gray in the shade – cool gray 4 C;
- gray in the shade – cool gray 4 C;
Meaning of colors and flag symbol
White means peace and snow on the mountain tops. Blue means freedom and clear skies.
The three mountains on the coat of arms are a symbolic representation of the three peaks of Monte Titano. And the three towers on them represent the fortresses erected in the 13th century to protect the capital of San Marino. The fortresses of Guaita, Cesta and Montale, which nowadays are the symbol and the main attraction of the country, constituted the defensive complex.
The crown crowning the coat of arms signifies independence and sovereignty. And the branches of the oak and laurel symbolize inflexibility, inflexibility and stability.
The motto “Freedom” emphasizes the fact that the small country has maintained its independence for many centuries. It also refers to the last words of the founder of San Marino, who uttered: “I leave you free.”
The civil flag has no image of a coat of arms. This is the difference between it and the state symbol.
Interesting facts about the flag
At one time there was a law in San Marino that prohibited the use by civilians of the country’s coat of arms. In this regard, a civil flag, which did not have the image of the coat of arms, became widespread. After the adoption of amendments and resolutions that lifted the restrictions, many citizens still prefer to use the civilian flag.
The turret from the San Marino flag is used on the logo of the famous Swiss watchmaking firm Delbana, because the founder of the firm was a San Marino.
General information about San Marino
|Currency||Euro (EUR, code 978)|
|Phone Code||+378 0549|